Three-Wheeled Electric Roadsters (Practical and affordable electric cars for today's commuter.)

Welcome to Shockwave Motors, home of the Defiant EV 3 Roadster©

Defiant EV3 Roadster©

Earth Day 2016: Mission Accomplished!


Earth Day 2016 was an exciting time for the Shockwave Motors Team. We were invited by NASA to showcase the Defiant EV3 Roadster at their facilities. The first day was a private showing just for NASA employees, contractors, and members of the US Air Force from Cape Canaveral. The second day was held at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex and was open to the public. Finally, we spent the third day of our Florida adventure at the Central Florida Earth Day Event held in Orlando, at Lake Eola Park. As you will see in the video, the Defiant Electric Roadster was enthusiastically received by the residents of Florida! We look forward to visiting again very soon!


At Shockwave Motors we make electric cars cool by providing a high performance electric roadster (Autocycle) that’s economical, pollution free, and just plain fun to drive!

Our three-passenger roadster is designed with the daily commuter in mind and has a range of 80 to 100 miles and then plugs into any standard 120-volt outlet for about 8 or 9 hours for a complete recharge. Then the commuter is ready to drive another 80 to 100 miles home. This gives the roadster an effective range of up to 200 miles per day. The top speed is about 75 MPH.


This is what sets us apart: No other electric vehicle, with our level of performance, can get a complete recharge in about 8 hours from a standard wall outlet. We don’t need any new infrastructure or special charging stations – just a simple 120-volt outlet!

Our performance testing is demonstrating just over a penny a mile for electric power and about 4 cents a mile for battery depreciation. Our prototype, all electric roadster, is getting the equivalent of over 200 miles per gallon!


At Shockwave Motors, Inc. We started with a clean sheet of paper and an open mind. The electric roadsters were designed with the help of a international team of experts. The Defiant EV3 Roadster© is designed from the ground up to capitalize on the efficiencies of an electric car; with an eye on a sporty design. We designed a "purpose built" electric vehicle, not modifying an existing body style. Our plug-in electric cars are an innovative combination of the best of today's propulsion technology and sleek, aerodynamic styling.


Our solution is to provide a high performance, yet relatively low cost, electric car that the average consumer can afford. We are designing into the roadster key safety features including: seatbelts, roll cage protection, extra spacing between the front occupant and the sides of the car, and front and rear crumple zones. Our full sized, pure electric car, is roadworthy and very stable. The Canadian Institute for Advanced Transportation (ITAQ), working in association with three Canadian universities, validated the design of our electric roadster. An electric vehicle offering high speed, superior efficiency, and long range, all at an affordable price, will have a disruptive impact on today’s market.


We revealed the new design changes for the Defiant EV3 at the Earth Fest Event at the Knoxville World's Fair site on Saturday, April 18th, 2015. The new design finishes the "old school" look of the roadster, widens the front, and provides a more aggressive look. The new design was well received and the comments from the crowd included: "Wow, what ride", "Exotic", "Awesome", "Sharp looking and Ecological", "Looks great", "Epic".

Roadster Specifications

Shockwave Motors: Three-Wheeled Electric Roadsters for the 21st Century.

Pure Electric Car
Our electric roadster is 100% electric powered – no gas necessary! Electric cars produces no tailpipe emissions. Eliminating local pollution helps reduce the cause of serious health problems like asthma and lung disease.

View our One Page Performance Summary and our Brochure:

Defiant EV3 Roadster© Specification Sheet

Defiant EV3 Roadster© Brochure

Roadster Range
Depending on the battery option selected, the single charge commuting range of the roadster is up to 175 miles, and the daily range is up to 275 miles (without using fast charging technology). The recommended battery configuration provides a single charge range of up to 100 miles and a daily range of 200 miles. Of course, the actual range depends on driving habits, cruising speed, the terrain, and temperature.

Carrying Capacity
Our full sized electric commuter is designed to comfortably carry a driver and two passengers; plus has plenty of room for cargo in the spacious trunk.

Shockwave Motors: Three-Wheeled Electric Roadsters for the 21<sup>st</sup> Century.

Chassis Engineered for Safety
Our ground-up design and tubular steel construction gives us a lightweight and strong chassis with racecar like passenger protection. The low center of gravity provides a smooth and stable ride, even under adverse weather conditions.

Top Speed
Our electric roadster has a top speed of over 70 MPH and can accelerate from 0 to 60 in about 10 seconds.

Suspension

  • Dual A arm Suspension
  • Coil Over Shocks
  • 2 rear 250 Pound Springs
  • 2 front 150 Pound Spring

    Transmission
    Two speed, clutch-less Transaxle, with electrical reverse. On demand, regenerative braking.

    Price
    The MSRP of our electric roadster is $24,950 (plus freight, dealer preparation, and options). While a stereo system, heater, and defroster are standard, air conditioning and certain high capacity battery combinations are optional. This does not include any state tax incentives available to purchasers of electric vehicles.

  • Our Values

    Shockwave Motors; Vision and Values

    Vision
    Our vision is to produce a safe and affordable electric commuting car that is economical and fun to drive.

    Values and Belief
    We are a values-based, innovative, technology driven, personal transportation company that is helping change the way we understand commuting. Our values and beliefs are simple. We believe in a triple bottom line of putting People first, the welfare of our Planet next, and finally making a Profit last.

    We also believe in keeping your information private! For additional information on how we collect your information and what we do with it, please refer to our Privacy Policy.

    Goals
    The goals for our company are simple. We want to help others transform their driving habits so they will use plug-in power, made locally, instead of relying on imported fuel products that are both polluting and expensive; and by doing so, we will bring jobs to the local economy.

    Corporate Culture
    Our corporate culture revolves around encouraging personal excellence through continuous learning and goal setting.

    Video Updates

    ~ Ecology ~ Economy ~ Excitement ~ Watch this short video of the Defiant EV3 Roadster© and see how we make electric cars sool. The Roadster can accelerate from 0 to 60 MPH in about 10 seconds has and a top speed of over 70 MPH!

    Defiant EV 3 Roadster©

    AOL’s Autoblog\TRANSLOGIC is where transportation meets technology. TRANSLOGIC is a fast, funny and informative ride toward the future of transportation for people obsessed with how we get from A to B. The award-winning video series has covered breakthroughs in transportation technology since it launched on AOL Autos in 2011.

    "This three-wheeled roadster pairs retro looks and a modern electric powertrain, for a truly unique package."

    Host Jonathon Buckley hops behind the wheel of the Defiant 3 Roadster on this episode of Translogic.

    Defiant EV3 Defiant Roadster© on All-American Makers


    Watch a video clip of the roadster being put to the test by Brook and Brian on the “All American Makers” TV show.




    Want more video? Check out the Shockwave Motors' YouTube Channel for more video of the Roadster, including how we built the first electric roadster.

    What Others Are Saying

    Rick Searfoss

    Astronaut/Space Shuttle Commander and the current Director of Flight Test Operations and Chief Test Pilot for XCOR Aerospace had this to say, "I've seen a lot of high tech engineering developments through the years. No question about it: Shockwave Motors practices creative, out-of-this-world innovation!".

    Ben Coxworth

    Gizmag Author, experienced freelance writer, videographer and television producer, wrote in his article, "The design of the three-wheeled Defiant EV 3 Roadster© is distinctly 'classic.' It's the electric car that ZZ Top might drive."

    Curt Robins

    Automotive and Technical Author, had this to say about Shockwave Motors, "Companies like yours, Elio, and Tesla are not only disruptive, but creating true paradigm shift. It's an exciting time!"

    Jerry Joslyn

    Automotive Entrepreneur, told us, "You’ve built the coolest looking EV I’ve seen. I had a friend from Tennessee here on Saturday and that was his unprompted first reaction as well."

    Jonathan Overly

    Executive Director of the East TN Clean Fuels Coalition, had this to say about the roadster, “This vehicle is an awesome choice for to and from work, and is an excellent vehicle for those that enjoy saving money on transportation, driving with the top down, and helping reduce carbon emissions.

    Stay Up To Date

  • Social Media
  • #DefiantEV3 and #ShockwaveMotors
  • View John McMillian's profile on LinkedIn

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Why three wheels instead of four?
    We are able to achieve a high level of efficiency by using a lightweight, yet strong, tubular steel chassis inspired by race cars, coupled with an aerodynamic body. Our unique three-wheel design guarantees less rolling resistance at all speeds and the aerodynamic body significantly reduces drag at higher speeds. The Defiant is a three-wheel vehicle as defined by the Highway and Transportation Board and as such it is included in the definition of a "Motorcycle"; Our roadster complies in every way with the safety requirements and regulations applicable to a motorcycle; and in fact, complies with many of the safety features of a standard car.


    As a motorcycle do we have to wear helmets and get a motorcycle license?
    In October 2013, the American Association of Motor Vehicles Administrators (AAMVA), a national authority on best policy for all state DMVs and Licensing Bureaus, recommended that fully enclosed, three-wheel vehicles, such as the Defiant, be driven with a standard driver’s license. Additionally, they defined this special class of motorcycle as an Autocycle. For additional details, please see the Best Practices for the Regulation of Three-Wheel Vehicles. California, Oregon and most other states exempt the driver of an enclosed tree-wheeled vehicle from the requirement of obtaining a motorcycle license. Additionally, California, Oregon and most other states also exempt the occupants of a three-wheeled vehicle from the requirement of wearing a helmet while the top is on. The roll bar installed on our production vehicles will extend the exemption to our Roadsters even when the top is removed! Of course, check with your state to be sure.


    Is stability as issue?
    Three factors determine the stability of a three wheeled vehicle, regardless of the design (tadpole vs delta); weight distribution, center of gravity, and how wide is the track. The Defiant is not designed like a top-heavy ATV. The low center of gravity and wide track produces a stable ride with no more possibility of a rollover than you would find in a conventional car. Mr. Robert Q. Riley a noted expert in three-wheel vehicles and designer of the Trimuter, had this to say about vehicle stability,  “A conventional, non-tilting three-wheel car can equal the rollover resistance of a four wheel car, provided the location of the center-of-gravity (cg) is low and near the side-by-side wheels.”   This is exactly how we have designed our roadsters – and our design was validated by the Québec Institute for Advanced Transportation (ITAQ).


    What kind of battery system do you use?
    The electric roadster is designed around a 144-volt system. The standard option is a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) large format, prismatic battery system. This is not the same lithium battery in size or format that is used in the Tesla, Chevy Volt, or Nissan Leaf. Some electric vehicles use cells similar in design and size to laptop batteries. The larger size, LiFePO4, prismatic battery cells that we use do not suffer from the thermal instability issues that must be dealt with when thousands of smaller cells are combined to create a battery system. These batteries are able to deliver greater charge density while improving system reliability when compared to thousands of the smaller, cylindrical cell format. Our design also minimizes points of failure and increases serviceability by using fewer cells to achieve the desired system voltage. Since the Lithium battery weighs substantially less than the Lead-acid counterpart, rolling resistances and inertia is reduced and acceleration is improved. To better meet your driving needs, we are offering three different Lithium Iron Phosphate battery sizes. However, should you desire a conventional (Lead-Acid) battery system we will provide that as well. For additional details on the safety of LiFePO4 batteries, please see, “A General Discussion of Li Ion Battery Safety” Safety” by Dan Doughty and E. Peter Roth.


    How fast will the electric roadster go?
    Under typical driving conditions our high performance electric roadster will have a top speed of over 70 MPH. However, vehicle speed varies depending on temperature, terrain, driving style, road conditions, and vehicle payload.


    How far will the electric car go?
    The range of the electric car is a function of many factors. Driving habits, cruising speed, the terrain, temperature, how big the battery pack is, the overall weight of the car, all influence the range of an electric car. As our vehicle is lightweight (but very strong because of our tubular steel construction), even Lead-acid batteries, provide a range of about 50 miles per charge at 40 miles per hour. With the recommended Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries, the single charge range is 80 to 100 miles and the daily range is up to 200 miles. The roadster comes equipped with a standard Lithium Iron Phosphate battery system that provides a single charge range of up to 50 miles and a daily range of about 100 miles. The largest battery system provides an estimated 175 miles per charge and up to 250 miles per day. At modest speeds, the roadster requires just over 100 watts of electricity to travel one mile. The roadster can travel about 45 miles on the eletricity needed to produce just one gallon of gasoline!


    How long does it take to charge an electric vehicle?
    Our electric cars are designed to plug into any conventional 120 volt outlet. Typically it takes about 8 hours for a full charge, and 4 to 6 hours for an 80% charge. Most of the time, charging is done at night when electrical loads are lowest (and off peak rates may apply). For long distance commutes, the car can also be charged during the day while the driver is at work.


    How much does it cost to run?
    Normally it costs about a dollar to charge the batteries ($1.75 to recharge our largest LiFePO4 battery); so at that rate, it costs a little over a penny a mile for electricity. Battery depreciation will add another three or four cents a mile to the operating costs. Research shows that maintenance and repair for the electric roadster will be less than 10% of the cost of a typical automobile. Under normal use, our roadster can pay for itself in less than 6 years!


    How often do I have to replace the batteries?
    Lead-acid batteries may be used and will last about 3 years depending upon how you drive and take care of your batteries. In typical driving, this equates to about 18,000 to 20,000 miles. The Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries (recomended) last two to three times longer than conventional batteries.


    Is insurance an issue?
    No, insurance is typically not a problem to obtain. Our roadsters register as a motorcycle.


    Why electric vehicles over hybrids or fuel cells?
    While Hybrids are leaps and bounds ahead of pure internal combustion vehicles they do still use fossil fuel and do still pollute a great deal. Fuel cells are still in the research and development phase and may be decades away from economical commercial production; electric vehicles are available now.


    Why Direct Current motors?
    We are using an efficient, high voltage, brushless, direct current (BLDC) motor. We've tested other motors, such as shunt, compound wound, and alternating current and found they did not deliver the overall efficiency, dependability, or cost effectiveness of a high quality, DC wound motor over a variety of driving conditions. Our goal is to keep the design simple and cost effective. While an argument can be made that alternating current systems are a little more efficient, when operating at their rated capacity, we don't believe the improvements are worth the trade-offs of higher costs, increased complexity, and potentially higher failure rate.


    What equipment is standard on the roadsters?
    An AM/FM CD Radio with MP3/USB port, cockpit heater, 12-volt power outlet, 144-volt lithium battery, adjustable driver seat, on-demand regenerative braking system, and defroster are standard equipment on the roadsters. Optional equipment includes removable hardtop, sunroof, air conditioning, sport rims, and certain high capacity battery combinations (three different battery capacities available).


    Why drive our electric roadster?
    Ecology, economy, excitement!


      "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication."
                                   Leonardo da Vinci


    News

    Shockwave Motors: Three-Wheeled Electric Roadsters for the 21st Century.

    In the News: Recent Articles and Video

    (see below for recent Press Releases)

    26 April 2016: This Electric Three-Wheeler Defies Conventional Thinking
    When you set out to build an electric car—especially in today’s marketplace—the thinking has to be different, dare we say, defiant. One team of creatives in Tennessee took that unconventional thinking to an entirely new level with the aptly named Defiant EV3.



    6 March 2016: Defiant EV From Shockwave Offers Affordable Electric Motoring "The Defiant EV from Shockwave Motors in Tennessee is a combination of many design influences. It is a three-wheeler, which reduces rolling resistance and improves aerodynamic performance. It has a top speed of over 70 mph and maximum range of 175 miles or more. Best of all, the company says the standard 100 amp/144 volt lithium-ion battery can be recharged in just 8 hours using a standard 120 volt household outlet."
    Article written by Steve Hanley and published by GAS2.



    28 October 2015: The Defiant EV3 Roadster© is a Three-Wheeler With a Classic Design "The Defiant EV3 Roadster© is a three-wheeler vehicle, designed by Tennessee-based company Shockwave Motors, that features a distinctly classic design."
    Article written by Rahul Kalvapalle and published by TrendHunter.



    26 October 2015: Defiant EV blends modern tech with old-school style The design of its three-wheeled Defiant EV3 Roadster© is distinctly "classic." It's the electric car that ZZ Top might drive.
    Article written by Ben Coxworth and published by gizmag.



    18 September 2015 National Drive Electric Week Event - Knoxville

    It’s a nationwide celebration to heighten awareness of today's widespread availability of plug-in vehicles and highlight the benefits of all-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric cars, trucks, motorcycles. Electric Vehicles (EV’s) are fun to drive, less expensive, and more convenient to fuel than gasoline vehicles. EV’s are better for the environment, promote local jobs, and reduce our dependence on foreign oil.


    Defiant EV3 Roadster

    WBIR TV covered the National Drive Electric Event and combined it with the issue that the University of Tennessee is having with its charging stations.


    Defiant EV3 Roadster

    17 June 2015: Shockwave Motors Wins Tennessee Veterans Business Association’s Business Plan Competition
    John McMillian, Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Shockwave Motors, Inc., says his interest in electrically-powered vehicles began as a child in the 1950s.
    Article written by Tom Ballard, Director of Innovation and Entrepreneurial Initiatives.



    8 June 2015: Inspiring Engineering of the Future
    John’s decades of experimentation, development, testing, and building have culminated in the exciting and game changing Defiant EV³ Roadster©. Working with a team of engineers and designers from around the world, Shockwave has produced an electric vehicle that challenges industry conventions.



    29 April 2015: Shockwave Motors Eyes $1.5 MM Raise for Defiant Electric Roadster Production
    Article written by Milt Capps and published by Venture Tennessee Connections.



    21 April 2015: Shockwave Roadster Needs No Gasoline
    Article written by G. Chambers Williams III and published by the Knoxville News Sentinel with pictures taken at the Knoxville EarthFest.



    1 March 2015: John McMillian Working Toward His Dream



    9 June 2014: 7 New Electric Vehicles to Watch in 2014
    Eric Schaal says, "Able to cover 200 miles with its largest battery pack, this three-wheeled roadster from Shockwave Motors has no equivalent on the market."



    6 May 2014: Shockwave Three-wheel Electric Roadster Revealed
    The Green Car Website's Faye Sunderland (United Kingdom) is enthusiastic about the Defiant Xtreme EV3 Roadster©, "Over in Tennessee, in the US, one new concept has caught our eye."



    26 March 2014: New Electric Vehicle, Defiant Xtreme EV3 Roadster©, to Debut Next Month
    Benji Jerew at The Green Otimistic recognizes the cutting edge design technology that went into the Defiant Xtreme EV3 Roadster©, "Like the Deltawing, it promises to be remarkably efficient. Like the BladeGlider, and unlike the Deltawing, it will carry three passengers..."



    3 September 2012: In Cayman, the Future of Electric Cars
    Alexander Britell writing for the Cayman Journal, reported, ?For the sporting-inclined, Shockwave is offering its ... roadster. The company, which is based in eastern Tennessee, is looking at the possibility of setting up local manufacturing in Cayman and other islands.."



    June 2007: The Defiant EV3 Roadster©
    Article written by l’Institut du Transport Avancé du Québec (ITAQ).





    Press Releases

    Electric Roadster Faces Challenges on All-American Makers

    Russellville, Tennessee November 30th: The show is scheduled to air on Wednesday, December 9th at 8 PM on the Science Channel. Tune in and see how our prototype electric roadster faces their challenges.

    View and download the PDF version of this Press Release.



    All Electric Roadster Wins Pep Boys Car Show Award

    Russellville, Tennessee October 10th: Shockwave Motors's Defiant EV3 Roadster©. wins "Most Unique" award at Pep Boys's Car Show.

    View and download the PDF version of this Press Release.



    Shockwave Motors Partners With LightStream

    Russellville, Tennessee June 26th: Shockwave Motors, Inc. has partnered with LightStream, a Division of SunTrust Bank, to provide consumer financing for the Defiant EV3 Roadster©.

    View and download the PDF version of this Press Release.



    Shockwave Motors Receives $5,000 Grant

    Russellville, Tennessee March 4th: Shockwave Motors, Inc. received a grant from Jonathan Williams, founder of the Tennessee Veterans Business Association; the grant was made possible by Eric W. Barton, President and CEO of Vanquish Worldwide.

    View and download the PDF version of this Press Release.



    Defiant EV3 Roadster© At Ijams Nature Center September 20th 10 AM until 2 PM

    Russellville, Tennessee September 21st: Shockwave Motors, Inc., a U.S. manufacturer of all-electric vehicles, participated in the international Drive Electric Week event. Knoxville, Tennessee was one of almost 200 cities across the United States and Canada that hosted events the week of September 15th to 21st. This international celebration was to heighten awareness of today's widespread availability of plug-in vehicles and highlight the benefits of all-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric cars, trucks, motorcycles, and more. The event was organized by the East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition and was held in Knoxville, Tennessee at the Ijams Nature Center

    View and download the PDF version of this Press Release.



    Defiant Xtreme EV3 Roadster© Energizes Earth Day Event

    Russellville, Tennessee May 1, 2014: Shockwave Motors, Inc. revealed its new all-electric roadster at EarthFest in Knoxville, TN on April 26th to a crowd of enthusiastic attendees. ?After many years of research and development we are pleased to be able to reveal the pre-production version of our electric vehicle, the Defiant Xtreme EV3 Roadster©. The roadster is a unique combination of aerodynamic design with an ?old school look?, coupled with ease of manufacturability enabling us to bring an electric vehicle to the market that is affordable and fun to drive.? John McMillian, CEO, Shockwave Motors, Inc.

    View and download the PDF version of this Press Release.



    Shockwave Motors, Inc. to Reveal Defiant Xtreme EV3 Roadster© at Earth Day Event

    Russellville, Tennessee April 16, 2014: Shockwave Motors, Inc. will reveal for the first time the new Defiant Xtreme EV3 Roadster© at Knoxville's 15th Annual EarthFest Celebration taking place at the World?s Fair Park on April 26th. The all-electric Xtreme Roadster has a top speed of almost 100 MPH and can accelerate from 0 to 60 MPH in about 7 seconds! This is not the electric car of yesteryear!

    View and download the PDF version of this Press Release.



    Shockwave Motors Participates in the Knoxville Centennial Conservation Expo

    Russellville, Tennessee October 12, 2013: We were pleased to be invited to participate in the Knoxville Centennial Conservation Expo. The daylong fair commemorated the National Conservation Exposition of 1913 held in Chilhowee Park.

    View and download the PDF version of this Press Release.



    Shockwave Motors joins the Autodesk Clean Tech Partner Program

    Russellville, TN February 15, 2013 Shockwave Motors was recently accepted into the Autodesk Clean Tech Partner Program, a prestigious program aimed at supporting emerging clean technology companies by providing indispensable digital prototyping software for modeling and visualization.

    View and download the PDF version of this Press Release.



    Shockwave Motors is a Semi-finalist at the Future Energy Pitching Event

    Russellville, TN January 22, 2013: Shockwave Motors has been selected as a semi-finalist at the Future Energy Pitching Event at the APRA-E Energy Innovation Summit in Washington D.C. on Monday, February 25, 2013. A total of eight startups will be selected to present from over 300 applicants.

    View and download the PDF version of this Press Release.



    *FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS


    THE OFFERING MATERIALS MAY CONTAIN FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INFORMATION RELATING TO, AMONG OTHER THINGS, THE COMPANY, ITS BUSINESS PLAN AND STRATEGY, AND ITS INDUSTRY. THESE FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS ARE BASED ON THE BELIEFS OF, ASSUMPTIONS MADE BY, AND INFORMATION CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TO THE COMPANY’S MANAGEMENT. WHEN USED IN THE OFFERING MATERIALS, THE WORDS “ESTIMATE,” “PROJECT,” “BELIEVE,” “ANTICIPATE,” “INTEND,” “EXPECT” AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS ARE INTENDED TO IDENTIFY FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS, WHICH CONSTITUTE FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS. THESE STATEMENTS REFLECT MANAGEMENT’S CURRENT VIEWS WITH RESPECT TO FUTURE EVENTS AND ARE SUBJECT TO RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES THAT COULD CAUSE THE COMPANY’S ACTUAL RESULTS TO DIFFER MATERIALLY FROM THOSE CONTAINED IN THE FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS. INVESTORS ARE CAUTIONED NOT TO PLACE UNDUE RELIANCE ON THESE FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS, WHICH SPEAK ONLY AS OF THE DATE ON WHICH THEY ARE MADE. THE COMPANY DOES NOT UNDERTAKE ANY OBLIGATION TO REVISE OR UPDATE THESE FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS TO REFLECT EVENTS OR CIRCUMSTANCES AFTER SUCH DATE OR TO REFLECT THE OCCURRENCE OF UNANTICIPATED EVENTS.


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